Textile Related to Earth – Geotextiles

As its name suggests Geotextiles refers to textiles related to earth or soil. When any permeable material used with rock, soil or earth it is termed as Geotextiles. The basic function of this technology is to prevent soil erosion to strengthening heavy concrete structures. This technology has not yet gained much attention in India, but is widely used in many countries for construction of bridges, roads, railway tracks to improve its strength. Many researchers have view that this technology is not newly developed but is in use from past thousands of years.
Formation of Geotextiles

Geotextiles can be formed of synthetic fibers, natural fibers or combination of the two. In past Geotextiles were made of natural plant fibers while today are usually formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester, polypropylene (PP), polyamides (PA) and polyamides (PA). Geotextiles made from natural fibers are less durable as they get decomposed with passage of time.

Choice of formation depends on the required properties and service life for which it is used. For example, natural fiber base Geotextiles is used for erosion control mats where durability is not a critical factor.

Natural Fiber Based Geotextiles

Natural fibers like Jute and coir have special applications. These different fibers degrade at different rates. Coir geotextiles degrade in 2 to 3 years while jute degrades in 1 to 2 years. Because of this property coir is used in situations where vegetation takes longer to establish, and jute is used in low rainfall areas as it can absorb more moisture. Also used for rural unpaved roads.

Advantages

1. Natural fiber-based geotextiles are environmental friendly.

2. Its biodegradable nature has certain cost-effective applications in erosion control and re-vegetation.

3. It is helpful in quick establishment of vegetation.

4. It also helps in dust control, sand dune formation, wind erosion control and stabilization.

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4 Ways Geosynthetic Textiles Have Solved Civil Engineering Problems

Over the past decade a greater emphasis has been placed on the development and manufacturing of geosynthetic textiles. While the geosynthetics industry is comparatively new, it has already created products with applications in a wide range of industries including geotechnical, transportation, hydraulic, embankment management, and mining. In many cases, a single geosynthetic textile can solve or improve multiple civil engineering problems simultaneously.

The first example of a geosynthetic textile application is the use of a prefabricated pocket style vertical drain made from a nonwoven filter jacket specialized as a PVD filter material. The purpose of this product was to reduce the time needed for construction by quickly discharging water in the ground which speeds up the soil consolidation process. Overall, it proved to reduce construction time and speed up the consolidation of soft ground in a variety of different situations including road construction, the development of building sites, construction of gas and oil storage facilities, and bank revetment.

The second example of how geosynthetic textiles can provide solutions to civil engineering problems is the polyester woven geotextile mat. It is created from a high tenacity polyester filament which is highly dense. This particular geosynthetic textile has been used to reinforce soft ground and embankments, separate layers of sand and soft ground, prevent the uneven settlement of soft ground, and securing a safe path of travel for heavy equipment across soft ground.

The third example is a silt curtain or fence created by geosynthetic textiles. A silt curtain is installed in the water to prevent the spread of environmentally dangerous contaminants. These contaminants often result from coastal and Riverside construction projects although it can also be used in the event of an open water spill or leak. It has been shown effective at preventing the spread of fine soil and sand induced by construction. It can also prevent the contamination of the nearby seaports and help preserve sea farming and area beaches.

The fourth and final example of geosynthetic textiles assisting with civil engineering problems is the polyester needle punched nonwoven geotextile. It is typically made of continuous filament fiber to promote fast drainage and filtration. It has been used to help prevent landslides, control erosion on banks, protect waterproof layers in landfills, prevent road tracking, and protect waterproof sheets and tunnels.

There is no doubt geosynthetic textiles will continue to play a greater role in finding workable solutions to civil engineering problems across the globe. As their production continues to scale, prices will decrease which will lead to an increase in availability as well as further research and development.

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Agro Textiles: A Novel Application

A textile fabric has a long history of application in agriculture. The word “agrotextiles” now is used to classify the woven, nonwoven and knitted fabrics applied for agricultural & horticultural uses covering livestock protection, shading, weed and insect control, and extension of the growing season. Agrotextiles help to keep sufficient soil humidity and increase the soil temperature

The textile materials mostly produce by synthetics in various decompositions, utilized in the mode of either woven or nonwovens. The fabric form is broadly utilized in the places where tensile strength and dimensional stability are measured to be compulsory for caring the plantations from natural circumstances.

The application of agro textiles will be helpful in terms of products with enhanced quality, higher production, less damages and bearable losses. It also allows us to apply less numbers of weed killers and pesticides. Alternatively, it helps the society by avoiding various hazards due to environmental pollution, etc.

The benefits of applying agrotextiles are:

. They increase crop production

. They avoid the soil from drying out

. They decrease the requirement of fertilizers, pesticides and water

. They make product quality better

. They increase the early maturing of crops and non-seasonal plants

There is various type of agrotextiles considered to train or tie up plants. Their object is

. To avoid branches from breaking

. To increase the cleanliness of the crop

. To make harvesting easy

. To give large space

HaiI protection fabrics

Hail protection fabrics supports shield vines from the fruit damage and defoliation connected with hail yet lets through adequate sunlight. The weightless netting is harsh, tear resistant, and extremely UV stabilized and processes an extra advantage of protecting vines from wind and birds. These fabrics are also applied to protect fruit, herb, and vegetable crops which are to be healthier and offer greater production when cared from the havoc of hail. The fabric provides light shading as well as safeguarding from wind and birds. These fabrics are produced by UV stabilized polyethylene mono filaments both woven and knitted form.

Structural aspects

. Diameter of monofilament: 0.25 to 0.30 mm

. Mesh width: 10 x 4 mm

. Weave : Leno

. Knitted Design: Raschel warp diamond design.

Advantages

. Hail shielding with smallest amount shading.

. Improved crop production.

. Durable, tear-resistant netting.

. Greatest ultraviolet stabilization for long life.

. Extra protection from birds and wind.

. Service life: 15-20 years.

Wind control fabrics

Wind control fabrics can get fruit quality better by decreasing bruising, shoot tip scorching. Trees that are cared from wind are normally healthier, achieve complete growth more fastly, and have greatest production. Wind break fabrics safeguard crops from wind, and in particular situations, orchard temperatures can be raised by decreasing wind speed. Windbreak fabrics start obstructing wind without delay, don’t harbor insects, consider less maintenance, and will not compete with crops for water and nutrients. UV stabilized fabrics offer years of wind safeguarding for crops. These fabrics are also produced by UV stabilized polyethylene mono filaments both woven and knitted form.

Advantages

. Instant wind protection.

. Less bruising, wind rub, and shoot tip scorch.

. Very useful and safety of orchard spraying.

. Unlike tree barriers, no competition for water and nutrients.

. May raise orchard temperatures by decrement of wind speed.

. Strong, long lasting fabrics.

Characteristics

. About 45 percent wind blockage.

. Protects nearly 8x windbreak height.

. UV and abrasion resistant.

Fabrics for weed safeguarding

Of all landscape maintenance programs, control or removal of weed progression is a foremost part. Weeds are not needed because of aesthetic detraction; competition for light, water, nutrients, and space; prerequisite of insect and disease habitats; and possible allelopathic growth suppression.

Nearly all landscape maintenance plans depends on hand weeding, herbicides, and mulches (alone or in combination) to suppress and manage weeds. Black plastic has traditionally been applied by majority landscapers to improve the effectiveness of organic and inorganic mulches, but many reports noted unfavorable effects on landscape plant growth because of its application.

In the last few years, a new group of synthetic materials has been established for use with mulches for landscape weed control. These geo-textiles (also describe landscape fabrics or weed barriers) have one key benefit over plastics – they allow the exchange of water and air between the soil and the atmosphere. Many reports have been observed on the weed-suppressing effects of these geo-textiles, with combination of results. While the majorities are quite effective at controlling annual weeds, managing perennial weeds is often weak. The producers suggested using a 2-3-inch layer of mulch atop the geo-textiles for aesthetic reasons, and as a consequence, numerous problems have been noted, mainly when organic mulches (pine bark, pine straw, hardwood bark, etc) are utilized.

Sunshade fabrics

The fabrics produced by polypropylene monofilament strands in both woven and knitted form are applied to provide as sun shade fabrics to improve a microclimate for plantation of flowers, ornamental plants and fruits.
Woven sunshade fabrics

It is produced by 100 percent polypropylene monofilament strands. The resin is prepared with additives and pigments to offer resistance to sunlight and weathering. Black pigmentation gives a high degree of sunlight resistance. It is UV stabilized to restrain under the most intense solar settings. It can be applied for several of uses like wind and privacy screen, shading for sports and recreation, livestock, patio, dog kennels and solar protection for plants.

Knitted sunshade fabrics

Knitted sunshade cloth is produced by 100 percent UV stabilized polyethylene. Its exclusive lock stitch structure permits customers the facility to cut the fabric with scissors without further unraveling. Knitted shade fabric is offer in several of colors and stripes. Its lightweight and durability make it a greater selection for all types of shade uses.

Uses

. It improves the condition of growth.

. Soil is not dehydrated.

. It provides savings in irrigation cost.

Insect repellent fabrics

A variety of pests like Whitefly, a number of insects harm some ornamental plants and vegetables regularly. Many viruses infect these plants. The affected leaves of the plants offer increment to the creation of black fungus due to the honey dew on the leaves left by the viruses. The creation of insect repellent fabrics has provided a way to protect the plants and vegetables. This kind of fabrics are extended from corner to corner in the open-air plantations so that the pests can no longer affected to the plants and also the climate will not be unstable in any way.

Setting up of areas cover:

. The whole walls of green-houses.

. On the roof-openings and vent openings of green-houses.

Structural aspects

. Weave: Linen

. Material: Polyethylene mono filament yarns

. Yarn Diameter: 0.25 mm

. Cloth density: 24 ppcm x 11 ppcm

Temperature control fabrics

Temperature control fabric is a nonwoven, spunbonded polyester fabric made to safeguard crops from cold, frost, insects and a range of unfavorable environmental aspects. Temperature control fabric supports in capturing heat on sunny days and keeps heat radiating from the ground at night. This helps in safeguarding precise ornamentals, nursery stock and foliage 24 hours a day.

Cold and frost control fabrics

Frost & cold protection fabric safeguards plants from frost kill in sudden late cold snaps and unseasonably early ones. Frost & cold protection fabric can be placed appropriately on the plants, unlike plastic covers that can draw attention to frost and burn any leaves that contact them. Cold safeguarding tough fabric row covers are ideal for safeguarding less developing, high value field crops from frosts, wind, cold, and birds. The woven, semi-clear fabric permits sunlight, air, and water through to the plants. The fabric can be applied unaided or over wire hoops. The covers are tough, and can survive in long run, for a lot of growing seasons.

Advantages

. Facilitate trap ground heat to warm crops.

. Permits sunlight and water through to crops.

. Prevents extreme heat build up.

. Re-applicable for many seasons

Rain protection fabrics

Rain protection fabrics safeguard the flowers and berries from harm in rainfall. The fabrics may have network like configuration to offer the purpose of saving from rain.

Conclusion

The practice of textiles is also now widen to safeguard the agro products like plants, vegetables and fruits from weather, weed and birds, etc, by method of agro textiles which has provided a novel applications to technical textiles.

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Future of Nonwoven Fabrics

Introduction

Usually people consider textile fabrics as the common categorization such as woven, knitted, braided or tufted constructions. They commonly abandon nonwoven fabrics form the textile group. In the conventional fabric, the fibre is first made into yarns; on the other hand, nonwovens are manufactured sheets or webs directionally or randomly orientated fibres, bonded through resistance, solidity or sticking together into a fabric.

The demands for fabrics have increased sharply. Conventional textiles are not able to meet the production cost and higher cost of upgradation along with demanding consumers in new fields of consumption. With better customization of characteristics into the fabric and appropriateness to certain end uses being advantages, nonwovens have emerged rapidly as the fabrics of the future.

Nonwoven fabrics presents many advantages over conventional fabrics, the clearest benefit is cost savings. In recent couple of years the nonwoven industry has emerged at a rapid speed, offering a huge range of products to several diversified fields. Conversely, nonwoven fabrics hold some natural characteristics, which led them to be counted for non-usable in certain applications. At present, many research and development has been conducted on enhancing the characteristics of nonwoven fabrics. Nonwovens are also entering into some astonishing fields, with making its mark in fashion apparel also.

Currently, three fibers lead the worldwide market:

Polypropylene (synthetic – 63 percent)

Polyester (synthetic – 23 percent)

Cellulosic staple fiber (natural-based 8 percent)

Manufacturing Process

To manufacture a nonwoven fabric, first a web is made, and then it is tied (bonded together) to give strength. Usually, Nonwoven fabrics are made from two processes, a one-step or two-step.

One-step process: In this process, the formation of web and bonding is conducted continuously. The processes, spunbond and melt blown are considered under one-step.

Spunbond process: The thermoplastic fibers are extruded via a spinneret, and then is it spread on a conveyor belt to make a web. Following the process, the web is bonded by passing it through two calendar rollers.

Melt blown process: The thermoplastic fibers are driven onto a collector screen to make a web. The combination of fibers fixing and snaring, results bonding.

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What Are Geo-Textiles?

Geo-Textiles can be defined as “a fabric or synthetic material placed between the soil and a pipe, gabion or retaining wall; to enhance water movement and retard soil movement and act as a blanket to add reinforcement and separation.” These are generally made up of woven, nonwovens and knitted type of fabrics. Geo-Textiles also known as Industrial Textiles, High Performance Textiles, Engineered Textiles, Technical Textiles and Industrial Fabrics are specially designed and engineered structures that are generally used in processes /services of non textile industries. They are materials and products manufactured primarily for their technical and performance properties rather than for aesthetic and decorative characteristics.

These are generally made up of woven, non-wovens and knitted type of fabrics. Geo-Textiles are the largest group of geo-synthetics in terms of volume and are used in geo-technical engineering, heavy construction, building and pavement construction, hydro-geology, environment engineering. Technical Textiles is the fastest growing branch of textile industries worldwide with bright prospects. The total global sale of Technical Textiles in 1995 was US$42 bn. It is estimated to be US$72 bn in 2005 and is expected to reach US$126 bn by 2010. Asia is the chief producer and consumer of Technical Textiles.

Uses of different types of Geo-Textiles are as follows:

Woven geo-textiles concrete bases used for coastal works, water ways, embankments and in forming geocell for road

Nonwoven geo-textiles used for Filtration, drainage, reinforcement between soil stone or aggregate and in roads, railways works, erosion prevention and separation. As filter fabric for dams, under drainage system liners for pile foundation, coated pvc and bitumen s to skin traction

Knitted geo-textiles used Knitted bags for protection of dam’s riverbank etc. Warp knitted fabric of Kevlar yarns used in automobile and marine application.

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